Rice Root Aphid (Rhapolosiphum rufiabdominalis) (RRA) is an olive-green insect with a round body. The wingless stages develop on roots and survive in all types of substrate. Periodically, winged aphids emerge from the soil and disperse to other plants……
Great article from Oregon State University
E. E. Lewis Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319
Thanks to Compost Tea Lab for sharing some scientific research regarding how and why compost tea works.
Utilization of compost tea for biochemical response assessment
associated with resistance to phytopathogen causing leaf spot
in Melicope ptelefoli
Malaysia's warm temperatures and wet climate create almost greenhouse like conditions that can be great for growing plants, but also great for culturing plant-disease causing fungi. Researchers from Malaysia's University of Technology wanted to determine what affect compost tea had on the growth of the leaf spot causing Grammothele lineata. The test plant was the Asian herb Melicope ptelefolia which is known for it's edible and medicinal qualities.
Researchers used two types of teas in the experiment, both were aerated, one of which was supplemented with Molasses. The researchers then made several concentrations of the tea and dipped leaf leaves into it. The leaves were then sprayed with a solution that contained the Grammothele spores. The infected leaves were incubated for a week and then the severity of infection was documented. The leaves were also tested for the amount of naturally occurring plant defense chemicals present in their tissue.
What they found was that both teas (with and without molasses) inhibited the growth of the fungal disease by up to 78%. The highest concentration (40% tea by volume) of molasses brewed tea was the most effective. The control leaf, which was sprayed with spores only, was completely infected. Moreover, the leaves that had tea applied to them produced more natural plant defense chemicals (Peroxidase and Polyphenol Oxidase). The tea boosted the plants own ability to fight off disease. This is an impressive new discovery in the compost tea realm, as most literature points to compost tea helping reduce infection through competitive exclusion. This is yet another reason to start using compost tea in your gardens and on your landscape. Thanks Malaysian scientists for furthering our understanding of why this living fertilizer is such a beneficial substance.
The Hempot™ is a transplantable propagation pot made completely out of hemp fiber. It’s materials and stitching are designed to be very sturdy during above ground usage but completely biodegradable upon transplanting. This pot is designed to be planted directly into the ground during transplanting. The unique woven fiber allows the plants roots to grow directly through the sidewalls upon contact. It’s adsorbent fiber will wick and store water, allowing the plants roots to not dry out too quickly upon transplanting, thus reducing shock. The fiber quickly breaks down to build soil organic matter. It has been designed and tested in Humboldt County, CA by iEarth, LLC.
WHY CHOOSE THE HEMPOT™?
•Eliminates Transplant Shock
•Increases Water Holding Capacity
•Increases Microbial Activity
•Increases Organic Matter in Soil
•Biodegradable - Completely biodegrades within 1-2 months, depending on management practices (ie; adding enzymes or microorganisms to assist with organic matter breakdown)
•Clean Fiber - Our hemp fiber pots are sourced from European hemp that is pesticide and fungicide free. It in the stages of being OMRI certified. You have our assurance that no harmful chemicals will be added to your soil.
Air Pruning - They provide excellent air pruning, which promotes lateral root growth. Air-pruning also helps plants that are going to stay in their container long term. Being air-pruned will eliminate root circling, which will allow you to keep the plant in the aeration container longer.
To support ecological farming practices please visit and support: WWW.HEMPOT.WORLD
Hemp is Legalized!!!
After 80 years of federal prohibition, the hemp plant has finally been “re-legalized” by President Trump signing this historic farm bill. This is a momentous shift for the cannabis industry in general and should help to begin rapidly deconstructing the stigma of cannabis in the eyes of the American public. The history of hemp has a sordid past, wrought with insider conflict of corporate barons, all jockeying to retain positions of their dominant industries. Thanks to the hard work Jack Herer, much of this corporate cronysim was disclosed in his book, The Emperor Wears No Clothes. But today we will not dive into the dark side of hemp prohibition, but instead remind you of hemp’s importance in the founding years of the United States of America and also include worthwhile elements noted about the farm bill.
If you’re interested in hemp, please take a moment and read over these stats:
American Historical Notes - From WWW.JACK.HERER.COM
In 1619, America’s first marijuana law was enacted at Jamestown Colony, Virginia, “ordering” all farmers to “make tryal of “(grow) Indian hempseed. More mandatory (must-grow) hemp cultivation laws were enacted in Massachusetts in 1631, in Connecticut in 1632 and in the Chesapeake Colonies into the mid-1700s. Even in England, the much-sought-after prize of full British citizenship was bestowed by a decree of the crown on foreigners who would grow cannabis, and fines were often levied against those who refused.
Cannabis hemp was legal tender (money) in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800s. Why? To encourage American farmers to grow more. You could pay your taxes with cannabis hemp throughout America for over 200 years.2 You could even be jailed in America for not growing cannabis during several periods of shortage, e.g., in Virginia between 1763 and 1767. (Herndon, G.M., Hemp in Colonial Virginia, 1963; The Chesapeake Colonies, 1954; L.A. Times, August 12, 1981; et al.)
George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew cannabis on their plantations. Jefferson,3 while envoy to France, went to great expense, and even considerable risk to himself and his secret agents, to procure particularly good hempseeds smuggled illegally into Turkey from China. The Chinese Mandarins (political rulers) so valued their hemp seed that they made its exportation a capital offense.
The United States Census of 1850 counted 8,327 hemp “plantations”* (minimum 2,000-acre farms) growing cannabis hemp for cloth, canvas and even the cordage used for baling cotton. Most of these plantations were located in the South or in the Border States, primarily because of the cheap slave labor available prior to 1865 for the labor-intensive hemp industry. (U.S. Census, 1850; Allen, James Lane, The Reign of Law, A Tale of the Kentucky Hemp Fields, MacMillan Co., NY, 1900; Roffman, Roger. Ph.D., Marijuana as Medicine, Mendrone Books, WA, 1982.)
Benjamin Franklin started one of America’s first paper mills with cannabis. This allowed America to have a free colonial press without having to beg or justify the need for paper and books from England.
In addition, various marijuana and hashish extracts were the first, second or third most-prescribed medicines in the United States from 1842 until the 1890s. Its medicinal use continued legally through the 1930s for humans and figured even more prominently in American and world veterinary medicines during this time. Cannabis extract medicines were produced by Eli Lilly, Parke-Davis, Tildens, Brothers Smith (Smith Brothers), Squibb and many other American and European companies and apothecaries. During all this time there was not one reported death from cannabis extract medicines, and virtually no abuse or mental disorders reported, except for first-time or novice-users occasionally becoming disoriented or overly introverted. (Mikuriya, Tod, M.D., Marijuana Medical Papers, Medi-Comp Press, CA, 1973; Cohen, Sidney & Stillman, Richard, Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, Plenum Press, NY, 1976.)
A New America
So as we enter a new era of farming, hemp now stands to be a MAJOR game changer for farmers all across the country. Some worthwhile elements to note about the new farm bill:
This version of the bill places industrial hemp — which is defined as a cannabis plant with under 0.3% of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC — under the supervision of the Agriculture Department and removes CBD from the purview of the Controlled Substances Act, which covers marijuana. The law also “explicitly” preserved the Food and Drug Administration’s authority to regulate products containing cannabis, or cannabis-derived compounds.(https://www.marketwatch.com/story/cbd-and-hemp-are-now-legal-in-the-us-so-what-does-that-mean-for-pot-companies-2018-12-20)
While the move has been widely characterized as outright legalization, it’s important to note that strict regulations still apply. Although hemp will no longer be in the jurisdiction of the Department of Justice, prospective growers will have to submit cultivation plans to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), either through the state government or the USDA itself. The Farm Bill ensures that any cannabinoid — a set of chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant — that is derived from hemp will be legal, if and only if that hemp is produced in a manner consistent with the Farm Bill, associated federal regulations, association state regulations, and by a licensed grower. (https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/marijuana/2018/12/20/hemp-officially-legalized-with-president-trump-signature-farm-bill/aKmNr3iS2AVJuRUbLPnz6I/story.html)
If there is one liquid ingredient worth having around, it’s baseline. Baseline is:
A soluble liquid supplement that feeds beneficial microorganisms; an excellent source of humic and fulvic acids.
It can be used in conjunction with an existing organic or synthetic liquid fertilizer program. It:
•Increases nutrient cycling
•Is an excellent ingredient in compost tea
•Can be used as a stand-alone foliar spray or root drench
•Can be used in drip irrigation systems without clogging emitters
While more expensive than other powdered humics, baseline has many benefits. First off, it is of the highest quality humus and will not create nutrient deficiencies, lockouts or other irregularities sometimes observed with powdered humics. Additionally, its liquid nature makes for rapid tank mixing, unlike other humic powders that get caked onto tank sidewalls and congeal into black clay like dots all over your equipment.
Baseline is basically like plasma for your plants and is a key component to the health of mother plants or any plants that spend many months root bound in containers. Root bound plants can be continuously regenerated by weekly applications of baseline and other microbial products.
Here is a short vimeo video demonstrating the use of baseline in a small nursery in Humboldt County:
Every once in a while topics outside of horticulture come along that are so important they must be discussed. I always understood that cannabis modulates (ie: regulates) our bodies through our endo-cannabinoid systems. But I never really understood how extensive it actually was, until now...
In case you’re not aware of it, our bodies have and internal “endo”-Cannabinoid system and cannabis acts as the exo-cannabinoid, “exo” meaning external or outside. So the body has this lock and key system that produces its own endo-cannabinoids and cannabis are like a bunch of keys that are capable of unlocking a lot of locks in our bodies! While this may be an oversimplified version of this system, it’s provides a clear enough analogy to process.
The most mind opening part of all of this is that cannabis modulates the muscular, skelatal, nervous, digestive, circulatory, limbic and endocrine systems. Basically every system in your body, cannabis can up or down regulate!!!! It causes apoptosis “programmed cell death” of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells in tact. It’s nueroprotetective antioxidant capabilities have been shown to protect the glial cells in the brain from degeneration. It’s the world’s most incredible plant and is truly here to help heal people.
The implications for health and wellness are profound. We are just at the tip of the iceberg when it comes to understanding how we can combine cannabinoids with other synergistic adaptogens, anti-oxidants, polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins and herbs.
Science should be diving head in to study how different elements can facilitate modulation when combined with different ratios of cannabinoids. What effects will THC + Iron have vs. CBD + Iron ? What about CBD + Vitamin C + Flavinoids + Calcium? The combinations are almost endless and new holistic modalities for for full spectrum healing might actually be possible with these combinations.
Daily microdosing of cannabinoids shows many promising modes of therapy so look forward into the future for businesses to offer combinations tailored to match specific alignments. At first glance, it appears that the cannabis plant has evolved with the homosapien to modulate our entire biochemistry. Only now, on the doorsteps of worldwide acceptance, can we gleam the vast potential of possibilities the exogenous Cannabinoid system can provide us to literally unlock the pathways for our healing....lock and key baby, lock and key…
By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association
Compost tea can be an effective strategy for balancing feeding schedules. But in the case of compost tea, more is not necessarily better. In fact, over application can actually cause significant soil imbalances. Many times, the problem of over-application of compost tea becomes compounded when the soil remains over-saturated for too long after the application of compost tea, especially if it is being used at every watering. If the microbes have a big boom cycle but then the soil is water logged, the bust cycle will lead to a much quicker anaerobic state, which can lead to a number of different problems.
There are many instances where compost tea is only applied 1x month to outdoor plants with excellent results. Just because you are seeing excellent results with compost tea, doesn’t mean that adding more will work even better.
Feeding Schedules for Rapid Growth
A very successful regime observed in Humboldt County involves transitioning between liquid fertilizers, compost teas and watering. So one would use their liquid fertilizer on the first watering, the second watering would be the compost tea and the third watering would be plain water. Depending on site specific conditions, you may want to repeat that schedule or mix and match in different patterns. Some growers dilute the tea and some apply it as full strength. Sometimes they mix it with liquid fertilizers. Some growers pre-amend their soils with organic fertilizers and then simply use compost tea periodically (~1x-2x month) throughout the growing cycles.
Whatever methods you decide to choose, know the backbone to any good compost tea is:
All the additional ingredients you add will depend on your knowledge of the plants life-cycle and current soil biology. There are ways to brew grow teas, bloom teas, high bacterial teas, high protozoa teas and fungal teas. People use molasses, fish hydrolysate, frass, alfalfa, glacial rock, kelp, straw and many other ingredients, but the backbone always starts with a HIGH QUALITY compost or castings.
That’s the quick lowdown on compost tea feeding schedules, if you feel like you have something to add or would like to share your regimen, please utilize the comments below. Happy Brewing!!!
By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association
Dynamic accumulators (DA) are plants that gather certain minerals and nutrients from the soil and store them in higher concentration in their leaf tissues. The leaves of the plants can then be used as compost, mulch or liquid fertilizer. The truth is that most plants, in a way, are dynamic accumulators in some way because they translocate the soil minerals into their leaves. The difference however, is that certain plants, like horsetail, nettle or buckwheat, for example, tend to pull specific nutrients up in greater amounts. Horsetail is well known for silica, nettle is well known for iron and buckwheat is known for accumulating phosphorus. Other DA”s like comfrey or yarrow are more all purpose accumulators and pull out more proportional balanced NPK ratios. DA’s are traditionally thought of as a class of plants associated with nutritive and medicinal herbs. But please don’t confuse DA’s as a specific class of plants, for they can also include other types of flowers and cover crops as well.
Dynamic accumulators (DA) can really be viewed as nutrient miners. They use their root structure to mine nutrients. They can have deep tap roots or an extensive underground network of rhizomes which translocate those minerals into their leaves. Sometimes they are used to try to repair soil, whereby a DA that has a deep tap root can pull up nutrients, and when the leaves are dropped and mulched over the surface, they breakdown and become bioavailable near the soil surface.
Typically though, people are using DA’s to mine nutrients from nearby soil and then apply those nutrients to another area of a farm or garden. So imagine you have a farm and there’s edges of fields or gardens just sitting there covered with grass. So one would plant a row or swath of, let’s say, comfrey in that area. Then the comfrey would mine the nutrients from that unused area and then the leaves could be mulched into the pots, beds or fields or amended into the compost pile. The comfrey could also be turned into liquid fertilizers or foliar sprays through the extraction processes of fermentation or sun teas.
One of the contended variables of DA’s is the technical science behind quantifying how much nutrients are actually stored. If nettle is good at accumulating iron, but there is no iron in your soil, hypothetically, then it won’t really store that element because it wasn’t there in the first place! Also, it is apparently unknown to science precisely how long it takes for nutrients to become bioavailable. Once the leaves store the nutrients, and the leaves return to the soil, there is little science to quantify how quickly or how much is returned into bioavailable nutrients. Science tends to overanalyze everything and want’s answers before proceeding. So while the scientific community is trying to find the answers to DA’s, the biodynamic and regenerative cannabis communities are embracing DA’s and seeing very positive empirical results. The complexities of DA’s are just beginning to be understood. There are a number of charts online to view which DA’s accumulate specific elements. Even if some of the research is anecdotal, it can still provide a general understanding for those wishing to engage in this practice.
By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association
Do you have an interesting article or research paper that you would like featured? Have you come across any interesting articles that might be pertinent to our discussion or organic and ecological plant management?
If so then please send an email to email@example.com to begin our discussion to get you noticed in the Cannabis industry!