Companion Planting for Cannabis

Examining the Management of Ecological Habitats for Beneficial Insects

Background

Yarrow, Calendula and Dill Flowering Near Cannabis Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

With a growing concern for eliminating pesticide residue in cannabis, farmers are learning to incorporate beneficial insects into their Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methodologies. Along with this IPM comes the potential to integrate the habitats for these insects, which ultimately decreases a dependency of purchasing them. Regenerative and biodynamic management are now amalgamating with IPM, helping us develop new insight for the complexity of running these systems. This article will attempt to encompass the broad concepts of companion planting beneficial insects and discuss the caveats of landscape management for these integrated ecosystems.

Companion Planting

Companion planting is when two or more plant species are grown in close proximity, typically for the benefit of certain spatial interactions or pest control.

In this article, we are strictly looking at the role of pest control. This application of companion planting can range from attracting beneficial insects (Banker Planting), to trapping the bad ones (Trap Cropping). Many times one plant will perform multiple roles. Gerbera daisies for instance, can become a trap crop for thrips, but then also becomes a banker plant if you introduce pirate bugs. Knowing the relationship of beneficial insects to flowering plants is an important step to proper companion planting.

Beneficial Insects

Pirate Bug (Orius insidious) hunts for food. Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

The goal of companion planting is to attract these beneficial insects into your environment, but there are quite a few different species you can purchase online if need be. Ladybird beetles, green lacewings and pirate bugs are fairly common. Some of the most popular types purchased are predator mites, of which there are quite a few different species (predator mites cannot readily be attracted through companion planting). Many species perform best within their designated range of specific environmental parameters. Photoperiod, temperature and relative humidity are typically the main factors, so it is up to you to perform the due diligence and monitor your environmental conditions to match them within your range. Another important factor is that the beneficial insects can be prey specific, so you need to have some understanding of your pest problem prior to planning. Green lacewings are generalist predators but their larvae are voracious aphid predators; pirate bugs are excellent generalist predators for thrips and spider mites, and certain species of predator mites are excellent controls for spider, broad and russet mites. Whichever species you choose, make sure to have a clear understanding of their role in pest control.

Beneficial Habitats

Lacewing eggs dangle from a cannabis leaf. Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

Creating beneficial habitats through companion planting is the name of this game. Increasing the availability of flowers is often the single most important strategy for increasing the abundance and diversity of beneficial insects. Like pollinators, such as bees, many insect predators and parasitoids feed on flower nectar or pollen during one or more of their life stages. Some predatory insects also feed on pollen as a supplemental source of protein—often when prey insects are in short supply or to increase the number of eggs they can lay. 

 

By increasing the availability of flowers, the numbers, longevity, and reproductive potential of beneficial insects is increased.  This can be very helpful for farms that often balk at the cost of purchasing some of these predatory species from insectaries. Numerous species of predator mites use pollen as a food source. Amblyseius swirskii, Amblyseius andersoni, Neoseiulus fallacis, Neoseiulus californicus and Galendromus occidentalis have been documented to feed on pollen of flowering plants.

Landscape Management of Beneficial Habitats

As with any operating system, there is maintenance! So it’s a conscious choice the farmer makes with their IPM. Do they want to manage spraying operations, or landscape maintenance operations?

Here are some important questions to mull over:

1.     What species of beneficial insects do you want to attract?  This will depend on which pest you are trying to control! Next you select the specific predator for your environment. Then you match up a flowering plant for your species.  There are a number of lists online, through permaculture guilds, university extensions or scientific journals that can provide this data. The insectaries that sell these beneficial insects can help you learn more about which insect might be most appropriate for your environment.

Pirate Bugs (Orius insidious) Love Calendula Flowers Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

Pirate Bugs (Orius insidious) Love Calendula Flowers Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

2.    What blends of flowering plants will provide the best succession? Strategic use of cover crop blended seed mixes can also provide successive blooms from March-October.  Peaceful Valley’s “good bug blend” cover crop mix contains that full spectrum bloom that is sure to attract many different species of beneficial predators.  Large scale commercial agriculture uses purple flash peppers because of their very long flowering period but according to Matthew Gates, an IPM Specialist from southern California, any type of ornamental pepper can also be intercropped to provide a pollen source.  From an biodynamic perspective, consider white yarrow, borage, calendula, alyssum, buckwheat, clover, dandelion, aster, nettle, fennel, queen annes lace, marigolds and gerbera daisies, just to name a few!  

It should be stressed that native flowering plants should be considered at first due to their innate ability to adapt to local environmental conditions and there be less maintenance to the farmer long term. 

Calendula and Yellow Clover Blooming at a relatively high spatial density. Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

3.    At what spatial densities do you plant? There really is no magic number as it also depends on your environmental conditions. In general though, you need quite a few flowering plants to really attract a large volume of beneficial insects.  IE: In a 10’x20’ space you would want at least roughly 1’ of each outside edge of the bed planted the entire length of the space. Clearly there are many different methods and some commercial greenhouses place single plants every 10’ feet of row space. Small trials for 1000 square feet of mixed greenhouse and outdoor space for cannabis have yielded positive results when 25% of the growing space was occupied with flowering companion plants.

Ultimately you are going to experiment with different plants and learn what works best for your environment. However in order to achieve high numbers of beneficial insects, you’re going to want anywhere from 5%-50% of the square footage of the space dedicated to companion planting. Many times this can be achieved by planting low growing species like calendula, clover or alyssum, again though it depends on which insects you are trying to attract.

Clover can be a vector for mites and mildew if not properly cared for. Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

Clover can be a vector for mites and mildew if not properly cared for. Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

4.     What to do when plants are attacked by disease or pest? This is probably the most important caveat emptor for people wishing to dive into companion planting. If you aren’t familiar with the companion plants you’ve added, you might find that it will become a vector for pests or disease if it is sick. This sickness can stem from an imbalance of biochemistry or moisture level in soil. Many times irrigation management to provide proper saturation conditions over the plot can be an important management hurdle to a successful system. Calendula and clover are two good examples of plants that fall victim to these environmental conditions. Calendula and clover can both have problems with powdery mildew and clover can become a trap crop for different types mites, allowing them to multiply their population. The savvy farmer will know how to scout and read overall environmental health. Learning to tolerate minor pest infestations is a must. Ultimately if the plants are too sick, they need to be removed from the environment and properly disposed of or composted.

5.    How often to prune back overgrowth?  Many species of cover crops or companion plants grow very tall and can crowd out cannabis especially when not planted at an appropriate spatial density or trimmed back properly. Daikon radish shoot upwards of 5 feet tall, vetch will start growing like a vine up cannabis stalks and branches. Suitable management should allot weekly oversight for light work, major trimming/composting projects might happen monthly.  

6.    How to compost/reuse the greenwaste?  The greenwaste from the companion plants can be utilized as a bioavailable nutrient source when properly recycled. Some feed it to animals, some chop and drop (based on canopy density), some make into ferments and some layer into compost or vermicompost. Management techniques will vary based on specific biogeographic conditions.

Border of Oregano Planted Nearby a Greenhouse. Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

7.    How to properly allocate nutrient loading for all plant species? Depending on the species and density of companion plants, you will need to factor in an increased nutrient load throughout the growing season. It is almost impossible to provide a clear estimate based on the complexities of different growing conditions. However, it can be estimated, based on a few trials, that a 5%-25% increase in fertilization may have to occur depending spatial densities and whether you’re in the ground or in container pots. Container pots planted at high spatial densities might require the high range of a 25% increase, while traditional methodologies of direct planting into the ground might only require a 5% increase in fertilizer, or perhaps none at all when planted in the ground on outside borders! Because of so little data existing in this sector of the industry, it will take some trial and error to fine tune this number.

Considerations

Crockett’s Banana Pie, Grown in High Spatial Density of Companion Plants with Organic Fertilizers. Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

Crockett’s Banana Pie, Grown in High Spatial Density of Companion Plants with Organic Fertilizers. Photo by: Cannabis Horticultural Association

Companion planting at higher spatial densities increases the habitats available for beneficial insects to flourish. Improper management of this polyculture can lead to unintended consequences, such as vetors for pests and disease, which lead to other maintenance costs. These companion planting systems are more easily maintained for the backyard gardener and boutique and cottage industry cannabis with less square footage to manage.  Ultimately there are other methodologies one could substitute for companion planting such as purchasing beneficial insects, using organic sprays, and just maintaining proper IPM. When a companion planting system is properly integrated, it provides diverse resources far beyond the scope of what traditional pest management can offer alone. Through mastery of botany, entomology and soil science, one can achieve this biological integration in their environment, which is kind of what the true spirit of cannabis is all about.

 Article by:

Russell Pace III - President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association

Compost teas proven as effective biocontrol agent to inhibit plant diseases.

Thanks to Compost Tea Lab for sharing some scientific research regarding how and why compost tea works.

Utilization of compost tea for biochemical response assessment
associated with resistance to phytopathogen causing leaf spot
in Melicope ptelefoli

October 2018
Organic Agriculture
Link Here

Malaysia's warm temperatures and wet climate create almost greenhouse like conditions that can be great for growing plants, but also great for culturing plant-disease causing fungi.   Researchers from  Malaysia's University of Technology wanted to  determine what affect compost tea had on the growth of the leaf spot causing Grammothele lineata. The test plant was the Asian herb Melicope ptelefolia which is known for it's edible and medicinal qualities. 

Researchers used two types of teas in the experiment, both were aerated, one of which was supplemented with Molasses.  The researchers then made several concentrations of the tea and dipped leaf leaves into it.  The leaves were then sprayed with a solution that contained the Grammothele spores.  The infected leaves were incubated for a week and then the severity of infection was documented.  The leaves were also tested for the amount of naturally occurring plant defense chemicals present in their tissue.  

What they found was that both teas (with and without molasses) inhibited the growth of the fungal disease by up to 78%.  The highest concentration (40% tea by volume) of molasses brewed tea was the most effective.  The control leaf, which was sprayed with spores only, was completely infected.  Moreover, the leaves that had tea applied to them produced more natural plant defense chemicals (Peroxidase and Polyphenol Oxidase).  The tea boosted the plants own ability to fight off disease.  This is an impressive new discovery in the compost tea realm, as most literature points to compost tea helping reduce infection through competitive exclusion.  This is yet another reason to start using compost tea in your gardens and on your landscape.  Thanks Malaysian scientists for furthering our understanding of why this living fertilizer is such a beneficial substance. 

California Phase III Cannabis Testing - Synopsis

California Phase III Cannabis Testing - Synopsis

If a sample fails terpenoid testing, the batch from which the sample was collected fails terpenoid testing and shall not be released for retail.

Hempot ---> Hemp Fiber Propagation Pots

Hempot_Promo.JPG

The Hempot™ is a transplantable propagation pot made completely out of hemp fiber. It’s materials and stitching are designed to be very sturdy during above ground usage but completely biodegradable upon transplanting. This pot is designed to be planted directly into the ground during transplanting. The unique woven fiber allows the plants roots to grow directly through the sidewalls upon contact. It’s adsorbent fiber will wick and store water, allowing the plants roots to not dry out too quickly upon transplanting, thus reducing shock. The fiber quickly breaks down to build soil organic matter. It has been designed and tested in Humboldt County, CA by iEarth, LLC.

WHY CHOOSE THE HEMPOT™?

Benefits include:

Breakdown of hempot after being buried for 4 weeks -Turning into rich humus

Breakdown of hempot after being buried for 4 weeks -Turning into rich humus

•Eliminates Transplant Shock

•Increases Water Holding Capacity

•Increases Microbial Activity

•Increases Organic Matter in Soil

•Biodegradable - Completely biodegrades within 1-2 months, depending on management practices (ie; adding enzymes or microorganisms to assist with organic matter breakdown)

•Clean Fiber - Our hemp fiber pots are sourced from European hemp that is pesticide and fungicide free. It in the stages of being OMRI certified. You have our assurance that no harmful chemicals will be added to your soil.

Photo of air pruning in hempot

Photo of air pruning in hempot

Air Pruning - They provide excellent air pruning, which promotes lateral root growth. Air-pruning also helps plants that are going to stay in their container long term. Being air-pruned will eliminate root circling, which will allow you to keep the plant in the aeration container longer.

To support ecological farming practices please visit and support: WWW.HEMPOT.WORLD


Hemp is Legalized!!!

Hemp is Legalized!!!

After 80 years of federal prohibition, the hemp plant has finally been “re-legalized” by President Trump signing this historic farm bill. This is a momentous shift for the cannabis industry in general and should help to begin rapidly deconstructing the stigma of cannabis in the eyes of the American public. The history of hemp has a sordid past, wrought with insider conflict of corporate barons, all jockeying to retain positions of their dominant industries. Thanks to the hard work Jack Herer, much of this corporate cronysim was disclosed in his book, The Emperor Wears No Clothes. But today we will not dive into the dark side of hemp prohibition, but instead remind you of hemp’s importance in the founding years of the United States of America and also include worthwhile elements noted about the farm bill.

If you’re interested in hemp, please take a moment and read over these stats:

American Historical Notes - From WWW.JACK.HERER.COM

  1. In 1619, America’s first marijuana law was enacted at Jamestown Colony, Virginia, “ordering” all farmers to “make tryal of “(grow) Indian hempseed. More mandatory (must-grow) hemp cultivation laws were enacted in Massachusetts in 1631, in Connecticut in 1632 and in the Chesapeake Colonies into the mid-1700s. Even in England, the much-sought-after prize of full British citizenship was bestowed by a decree of the crown on foreigners who would grow cannabis, and fines were often levied against those who refused.

  2. Cannabis hemp was legal tender (money) in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800s. Why? To encourage American farmers to grow more. You could pay your taxes with cannabis hemp throughout America for over 200 years.2 You could even be jailed in America for not growing cannabis during several periods of shortage, e.g., in Virginia between 1763 and 1767. (Herndon, G.M., Hemp in Colonial Virginia, 1963; The Chesapeake Colonies, 1954; L.A. Times, August 12, 1981; et al.)

  3. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew cannabis on their plantations. Jefferson,3 while envoy to France, went to great expense, and even considerable risk to himself and his secret agents, to procure particularly good hempseeds smuggled illegally into Turkey from China. The Chinese Mandarins (political rulers) so valued their hemp seed that they made its exportation a capital offense.

  4. The United States Census of 1850 counted 8,327 hemp “plantations”* (minimum 2,000-acre farms) growing cannabis hemp for cloth, canvas and even the cordage used for baling cotton. Most of these plantations were located in the South or in the Border States, primarily because of the cheap slave labor available prior to 1865 for the labor-intensive hemp industry. (U.S. Census, 1850; Allen, James Lane, The Reign of Law, A Tale of the Kentucky Hemp Fields, MacMillan Co., NY, 1900; Roffman, Roger. Ph.D., Marijuana as Medicine, Mendrone Books, WA, 1982.)

  5. Benjamin Franklin started one of America’s first paper mills with cannabis. This allowed America to have a free colonial press without having to beg or justify the need for paper and books from England.

  6. In addition, various marijuana and hashish extracts were the first, second or third most-prescribed medicines in the United States from 1842 until the 1890s. Its medicinal use continued legally through the 1930s for humans and figured even more prominently in American and world veterinary medicines during this time. Cannabis extract medicines were produced by Eli Lilly, Parke-Davis, Tildens, Brothers Smith (Smith Brothers), Squibb and many other American and European companies and apothecaries. During all this time there was not one reported death from cannabis extract medicines, and virtually no abuse or mental disorders reported, except for first-time or novice-users occasionally becoming disoriented or overly introverted. (Mikuriya, Tod, M.D., Marijuana Medical Papers, Medi-Comp Press, CA, 1973; Cohen, Sidney & Stillman, Richard, Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, Plenum Press, NY, 1976.)

    A New America

So as we enter a new era of farming, hemp now stands to be a MAJOR game changer for farmers all across the country. Some worthwhile elements to note about the new farm bill:

Product Spotlight - Baseline

If there is one liquid ingredient worth having around, it’s baseline. Baseline is:

A soluble liquid supplement that feeds beneficial microorganisms; an excellent source of humic and fulvic acids.

It can be used in conjunction with an existing organic or synthetic liquid fertilizer program. It:

•Increases nutrient cycling

•Is an excellent ingredient in compost tea

•Can be used as a stand-alone foliar spray or root drench

•Can be used in drip irrigation systems without clogging emitters

While more expensive than other powdered humics, baseline has many benefits. First off, it is of the highest quality humus and will not create nutrient deficiencies, lockouts or other irregularities sometimes observed with powdered humics. Additionally, its liquid nature makes for rapid tank mixing, unlike other humic powders that get caked onto tank sidewalls and congeal into black clay like dots all over your equipment.

Baseline is basically like plasma for your plants and is a key component to the health of mother plants or any plants that spend many months root bound in containers. Root bound plants can be continuously regenerated by weekly applications of baseline and other microbial products.

Here is a short vimeo video demonstrating the use of baseline in a small nursery in Humboldt County:

Baseline

Cannabis - The Ultimate Modulator

Every once in a while topics outside of horticulture come along that are so important they must be discussed.  I always understood that cannabis modulates (ie: regulates) our bodies through our endo-cannabinoid systems. But I never really understood how extensive it actually was, until now...

In case you’re not aware of it, our bodies have and internal “endo”-Cannabinoid system and cannabis acts as the exo-cannabinoid, “exo” meaning external or outside. So the body has this lock and key system that produces its own endo-cannabinoids and cannabis are like a bunch of keys that are capable of unlocking a lot of locks in our bodies! While this may be an oversimplified version of this system, it’s provides a clear enough analogy to process.

Poster from www.MarysMedicinals.com

Poster from www.MarysMedicinals.com

The most mind opening part of all of this is that cannabis modulates the muscular, skelatal, nervous, digestive, circulatory, limbic and endocrine systems. Basically every system in your body, cannabis can up or down regulate!!!! It causes apoptosis “programmed cell death” of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells in tact. It’s nueroprotetective antioxidant capabilities have been shown to protect the glial cells in the brain from degeneration.  It’s the world’s most incredible plant and is truly here to help heal people.

The implications for health and wellness are profound. We are just at the tip of the iceberg when it comes to understanding how we can combine cannabinoids with other synergistic adaptogens, anti-oxidants, polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins and herbs.  

Science should be diving head in to study how different elements can facilitate modulation when combined with different ratios of cannabinoids. What effects will THC + Iron have vs. CBD + Iron ? What about CBD + Vitamin C + Flavinoids + Calcium? The combinations are almost endless and new holistic modalities for for full spectrum healing might actually be possible with these combinations.

Daily microdosing of cannabinoids shows many promising modes of therapy so look forward into the future for businesses to offer combinations tailored to match specific alignments. At first glance, it appears that the cannabis plant has evolved with the homosapien to modulate our entire biochemistry. Only now, on the doorsteps of worldwide acceptance, can we gleam the vast potential of possibilities the exogenous Cannabinoid system can provide us to literally unlock the pathways for our healing....lock and key baby, lock and key…

By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association

Compost Tea Feeding Schedules

Compost tea made with all liquid ingredients

Compost tea made with all liquid ingredients

Compost tea can be an effective strategy for balancing feeding schedules. But in the case of compost tea, more is not necessarily better. In fact, over application can actually cause significant soil imbalances. Many times, the problem of over-application of compost tea becomes compounded when the soil remains over-saturated for too long after the application of compost tea, especially if it is being used at every watering. If the microbes have a big boom cycle but then the soil is water logged, the bust cycle will lead to a much quicker anaerobic state, which can lead to a number of different problems.

There are many instances where compost tea is only applied 1x month to outdoor plants with excellent results. Just because you are seeing excellent results with compost tea, doesn’t mean that adding more will work even better.

Feeding Schedules for Rapid Growth

This compost tea was tank mixed with a few biostimulants just prior to watering.

This compost tea was tank mixed with a few biostimulants just prior to watering.

  1. Liquid Fertilizer

  2. Compost Tea

  3. Water

A very successful regime observed in Humboldt County involves transitioning between liquid fertilizers, compost teas and watering.  So one would use their liquid fertilizer on the first watering, the second watering would be the compost tea and the third watering would be plain water. Depending on site specific conditions, you may want to repeat that schedule or mix and match in different patterns. Some growers dilute the tea and some apply it as full strength. Sometimes they mix it with liquid fertilizers. Some growers pre-amend their soils with organic fertilizers and then simply use compost tea periodically (~1x-2x month) throughout the growing cycles.

Whatever methods you decide to choose, know the backbone to any good compost tea is:

  • Compost/Humus

  • Worm Castings

Cherry Zkittlez grown with compost tea

Cherry Zkittlez grown with compost tea

All the additional ingredients you add will depend on your knowledge of the plants life-cycle and current soil biology. There are ways to brew grow teas, bloom teas, high bacterial teas, high protozoa teas and fungal teas. People use molasses, fish hydrolysate, frass, alfalfa, glacial rock, kelp, straw and many other ingredients, but the backbone always starts with a HIGH QUALITY compost or castings.

That’s the quick lowdown on compost tea feeding schedules, if you feel like you have something to add or would like to share your regimen, please utilize the comments below. Happy Brewing!!!

By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association

Dynamic Accumulators Overview

Dynamic Accumulators planted nearby also function as companion plants, attracting beneficial insects and building soil biology through chop and drop layering and moisture retention through shading on hot summer days.

Dynamic Accumulators planted nearby also function as companion plants, attracting beneficial insects and building soil biology through chop and drop layering and moisture retention through shading on hot summer days.

Dynamic accumulators (DA) are plants that gather certain minerals and nutrients from the soil and store them in higher concentration in their leaf tissues. The leaves of the plants can then be used as compost, mulch or liquid fertilizer.  The truth is that most plants, in a way, are dynamic accumulators in some way because they translocate the soil minerals into their leaves. The difference however, is that certain plants, like horsetail, nettle or buckwheat, for example, tend to pull specific nutrients up in greater amounts.  Horsetail is well known for silica, nettle is well known for iron and buckwheat is known for accumulating phosphorus. Other DA”s like comfrey or yarrow are more all purpose accumulators and pull out more proportional balanced NPK ratios.  DA’s are traditionally thought of as a class of plants associated with nutritive and medicinal herbs. But please don’t confuse DA’s as a specific class of plants, for they can also include other types of flowers and cover crops as well.

 

Dynamic accumulators (DA) can really be viewed as nutrient miners. They use their root structure to mine nutrients. They can have deep tap roots or an extensive underground network of rhizomes which translocate those minerals into their leaves.  Sometimes they are used to try to repair soil, whereby a DA that has a deep tap root can pull up nutrients, and when the leaves are dropped and mulched over the surface, they breakdown and become bioavailable near the soil surface.

 

Comfrey - Plant near compost bins or greenhouses for easy mulching and/or compost building.

Comfrey - Plant near compost bins or greenhouses for easy mulching and/or compost building.

Typically though, people are using DA’s to mine nutrients from nearby soil and then apply those nutrients to another area of a farm or garden. So imagine you have a farm and there’s edges of fields or gardens just sitting there covered with grass. So one would plant a row or swath of, let’s say, comfrey in that area.  Then the comfrey would mine the nutrients from that unused area and then the leaves could be mulched into the pots, beds or fields or amended into the compost pile. The comfrey could also be turned into liquid fertilizers or foliar sprays through the extraction processes of fermentation or sun teas.

 

Chamomile Sun Teas have been tested to be high in Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S. This chamomile fermented plant extract was drip fed to these plants.

Chamomile Sun Teas have been tested to be high in Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S. This chamomile fermented plant extract was drip fed to these plants.

One of the contended variables of DA’s is the technical science behind quantifying how much nutrients are actually stored. If nettle is good at accumulating iron, but there is no iron in your soil, hypothetically, then it won’t really store that element because it wasn’t there in the first place! Also, it is apparently unknown to science precisely how long it takes for nutrients to become bioavailable.  Once the leaves store the nutrients, and the leaves return to the soil, there is little science to quantify how quickly or how much is returned into bioavailable nutrients. Science tends to overanalyze everything and want’s answers before proceeding. So while the scientific community is trying to find the answers to DA’s, the biodynamic and regenerative cannabis communities are embracing DA’s and seeing very positive empirical results. The complexities of DA’s are just beginning to be understood. There are a number of charts online to view which DA’s accumulate specific elements. Even if some of the research is anecdotal, it can still provide a general understanding for those wishing to engage in this practice.

By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association

Submit your Article

Do you have an interesting article or research paper that you would like featured? Have you come across any interesting articles that might be pertinent to our discussion or organic and ecological plant management? 

If so then please send an email to info@chascience.com to begin our discussion to get you noticed in the Cannabis industry!

CANNABIS AND COMPOST TEA- THE BIOLOGICAL REVOLUTION

CANNABIS AND COMPOST TEA- THE BIOLOGICAL REVOLUTION

~Humboldt Earth Technologies~

As growers we always seem to be searching for the next level. Larger yields, higher quality and ways to cut costs are the general directives we aim to achieve. Within this industry however, there seems to be an overuse of synthetic fertilizers with little understanding of the biological systems involved in nutrient uptake and disease control. Many inexperienced growers overuse synthetic fertilizers, hoping that more nutrients means higher yields. All that really happens is a massive salt buildup, which leads to dead microbes, nutrient lockout, a lot of flushing and heavy fungicide spraying.

Companion Planting with Cannabis

Companion Planting with Cannabis

The Companion Planting for Cannabis workshop will go over all the categories of cover crops and highlight their roles in soil biology and plant fertility while addressing certain caveats when utilizing these systems. It will then transition into companion planting to cover a local case study...