Leafhoppers may sometimes be confused with aphids or lygus bugs. Look for leafhoppers or their cast skins on the undersides of affected leaves. Look at their actions; they are faster than aphids and run sideways and jump. Lygus bug nymphs are light green and also move much faster than aphids. They can be identified by their red-tipped antennae. Aphids can be distinguished by two tubelike structures, called cornicles, protruding from the hind end. One or more long rows of spines on the hind legs of leafhoppers and characters on their head distinguish leafhoppers from most other insects they resemble. (University of California Statewide IPM Program)
Leafhoppers go through incomplete metamorphosis in their development. Female leafhoppers insert tiny eggs in tender plant tissue, causing pimplelike injuries. Overwintered eggs begin to hatch in mid-April. Wingless nymphs emerge and molt four or five times before maturing in about 2 to 7 weeks. Nymphs resemble adults except that they lack wings; later-stage nymphs have small wing pads. There is no pupal stage. Leafhoppers overwinter as eggs on twigs or as adults in protected places such as bark crevices. In cold-winter climates, leafhoppers may die during winter and in spring migrate back in from warmer regions. Most species have two or more generations each year. (University of California Statewide IPM Program)
Recommended controls for leafhoppers
Each control will have its own set of parameters that will be best suited for individual environments. Certain controls may only be available for commercial application.