Dynamic Accumulators - Nettle Nutrient Analysis

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The Cannabis Horticultural Association (CHA) has embarked on a mission to re-analyze the potential of dynamic accumulators. Dynamic accumulators is a term used in the permaculture and organic farming literature to indicate plants that gather certain minerals or nutrients from the soil and store them in a more bioavailable form and in high concentration in their tissues, then used as fertilizer or just to improve the mulch layer. The first to use the term dynamic accumulator in the above definition was probably Robert Kourik in his book Designing and Maintaining Your Edible Landscape—Naturally (1986).

There are people claim there is no scientific data supporting it, and the definition itself varies quite depending on the author. The closest thing with a proven scientific base is Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases that is compiled on a USDA website.

CHA is in the process of testing a variety of plants considered dynamic accumulators and then comparing our data with Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. So far CHA has tests results for Nettle, Yarrow and Comfrey. This blog post will cover the results of Nettle and show that there are some very interesting correlations between the two datasets. In this authors opinion, these results provide decent analytical proof that different types of plants do accumulate higher levels of specific nutrients.

BELOW IS A LINK TO A PDF FOR THE 2 DATASETS FOR NETTTLE. THE LEFT DATASET IS THE SAMPLE OF NETTLE ANALYZED BY CHA. THE DATASET ON THE RIGHT IS THE ONE COMPILED BY DR. DUKE’S ETHNOBOTANICAL DATABASE. THERE ARE SOME STRIKING CORRELATIONS WITH THE ELEMENTS, SPECIFICALLY HIGH VALUES IN BOTH DATASETS FOR CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, POTASSIUM AND SULFUR. SEVERAL other micronutrients CHA tested also fall within the low and high ranges provided by Dr. Duke.

If you appreciate our work here, please consider joining CHA. All these analytical tests are funded by our members, and your support can help us continue the research to bring ecological methodologies to the world.

NETTLE FERTILIZER ANALYSIS

Studying Biocontrols for Root Aphids

Examining the efficacy for two classes of biocontrols on root aphids.

Intro & Overview

This study was conducted by the Cannabis Horticultural Association and examined the efficacy of two different classes of biocontrols for root aphids on cannabis.

  1. Predatory Nematodes- (Steinernema feltiae) & (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora)

  2. Myco-insecticide- Beauveria bassiana

This study arose after receiving conflicting information regarding the predatory nematode (Steinernema feltiae) ability for control of root aphids. There are a few companies that have nematodes listed as a control for root aphids.  After speaking with an entomologist and agronomist and looking further into the research, it turned out a few highly reputable insectaries did not have nematodes listed for root aphid control. So a microscope study was set up to examine how 2 different nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, interact with root aphids. Juvenile and adult root aphids were tested and observed under above average populations of nematodes. Then the biological control was introduced to observe its efficacy of the nematodes on injured root aphids. The methods, results and discussion will be reviewed.

Study 1 - Predatory Nematodes

Placement of root aphids and nematodes on a slide.

Placement of root aphids and nematodes on a slide.

Materials and Methods

Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were ordered from a reputable Insectary. Both packs were inspected upon arrival and sampled to determine if the nematodes were alive. This was confirmed through microscope observation.

For Study 1, root aphids were observed on a local farm on a select few plants with small populations of root aphids colonizing on the base of the pots. The root aphids were examined under an OMAX microscope. The slides were then populated with nematodes and several root aphids, ranging from juveniles to adults. The aphids were left on the slide over the course of 3 hours to examine the interaction between the nematodes and the root aphids.

Results

Upon puncturing the thorax of the root aphid, the nematodes engulfed the cavity.

The initial results of Study 1 was the nematodes were not able to penetrate the exoskeleton of the root aphids. The nematodes were observed to swarm the bodies, but the aphids were very adept at kicking, spinning and rubbing their legs together to remove the nematodes from latching on. The aphids were periodically nudged back towards the high density populations of the nematodes to attempt to view exoskeleton penetration. Over the course of a 3 hour observation, neither the Steinernema feltiae nor the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes were able to penetrate into a root aphid. At the end of the 3 hour observation time, a needle was used to rupture the thorax of a root aphid. At that time, the nematodes engulfed the root aphid and were observed penetrating at multiple locations.

Discussion

For Study 1, the inefficiency of nematodes as standalone control for root aphids became very clear. The root aphids were able to “shake off” the nematodes by kicking their legs and spinning. Although root aphids are generally considered to move very slowly, this rapid spring loaded body motion helped them remove the nematodes off their appendages. It should be noted however, that these were artificial conditions where the root aphids and nematodes were suspended in water. It is unknown whether or not the nematodes predatory skills function better in a soil aggregate, considering they might have something to push off of to penetrate.


Study 2 - Microbial Insecticide (Beauveria bassiana)

materials and methods

Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WPO) was purchased from a reputable dealer with proper environmental controls in place to preserve the quality of the spores. Root aphids were collected from a nearby farm with a few plants containing small populations of root aphids. The test was run on 4” pots and 3 gallon pots. Those pots were inoculated by drenching with Beauveria bassiana at a higher rate of 0.5oz (15ml) per gallon. The pots were quarantined in a small greenhouse with concrete floors and trays to capture any runoff. The 4” pots were dunked in solution and drenched to the point of 100% media saturation with the Beauveria bassiana. The 3 gallon pots were hand watered and every attempt was made to achieve 100% saturation but due to the complexities of soil structure and methodologies, not all pore space was saturated. The pots were left to sit for 5 days, being spot watered as needed, ensuring the soil medium never dried out. After the allotted 5 day period, the pots were examined and root aphids were collected and populated with the predatory nematodes following the exact same procedures from Study 1.

Results

Dead root aphid infected with spores of B. bassiana.

The results of this study indicated a decently high mortality rate (50+%) of the root aphids that were infected by Beauveria bassiana. This is a general estimate of the observed populations but not an exact number. Many of the root aphids that were not killed appeared to have had their defense systems weakened.

Over a few hour time period of being exposed to nematodes on the slide, the nematodes were observed able to overtake the root aphids and penetrate their exoskeleton. The Beauveria bassiana did not have a 100% mortality rate and the aphids that appeared healthy were able to defend against the attacking nematodes.

Discussion

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Study 2 showed the most significant advancement towards effective IPM methodologies for combatting root aphids, with a multi-tiered approach with microbial insecticides followed by an application of predatory nematodes. First one would inoculate with a biological control such as Beauveria bassiana, waiting between 2-5 days before applying predatory nematodes. Then this cycle should be repeated for a few weeks with heavy scouting to ensure that the reduction of aphid populations is occurring. It is highly important to find reputable dealers that understand the sensitive nature of this biological pesticide and ensure you are paying for live spores. Proper storage in a cool, dry place. Avoid storage below freezing temperatures or above 85°F. The stability of the spores decreases with time at temperatures above 85°F. Keeping the container sealed and preventing cross contamination with water or other products will help in ensuring its efficacy.


If you felt that this information was helpful, consider joining CHA to help support these types of research studies for cannabis horticulture

CHA Welcomes David Heldreth to the Advisory Board

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David Heldreth is a Chief Science Officer of True Terpenes and also the founder and CEO of Panacea Plant Sciences, a biotechnology company developing a portfolio of cultivation and related IP and patents around the cannabis plant. He testified on behalf of True Terpenes at the historic FDA hearing on cannabis, CBD, CBG, CBC and terpenes in our food supply on May 31, 2019.

A background in engineering, biology and journalism drive Heldreth’s desire to develop new technology and inform the public. He was sought after by CHA because he’s an expert on the various laws that affect the way hemp and cannabis are regulated. Heldreth regularly brings his knowledge to the public to educate consumers, medical patients and government regulators on cannabis science and policy topics.

Heldreth and Panacea Plant Sciences have secured a 9-acre hemp cultivation and processing campus and Washington State hemp cultivation, processing and marketing licenses. He’s an expert on the various laws from the Farm Bill to the FD&C Act that affect the way hemp and cannabis are allowed to be cultivated, processed and even used under federal and state laws. Heldreth recently helped have language stating “the whole hemp plant may be used as food” inserted into Washington State Hemp Bill SB5276 which secures a pathway to food use for hemp products.

Heldreth brings this knowledge and background to his work guiding True Terpenes through the scientific and regulatory landscapes. True Terpenes focuses on providing flavor solutions for cannabis, food, beverage, cosmetics and beyond. They specialize in utilizing isolated botanical terpenes to recreate the flavor, taste and aroma of the cannabis plant. True Terpenes and Heldreth are developing cannabis and terpene intellectual property to expand form factors and uses for terpenes. This dovetails with the company’s advocacy work with cannabis at the state and national levels. At the national level Heldreth is slated to testify at the FDA hearing on the use of cannabis and its derivatives for use in food, cosmetics and more on May 31. His focus will be on a short path to FDA approved food use for hemp and cannabis-derived terpenes.

Southern Agriculture Insecticides, Inc. Triple Action Neem Oil Broad Spectrum Fungicide, Insecticide, Miticide removed from ODA's guide list

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The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) has issued a notice of statewide detainment and stop sale and removal order for Triple Action Neem Oil Broad Spectrum Fungicide, Insecticide, Miticide manufactured by Southern Agriculture Insecticides, Inc. after finding the presence of three pesticide active ingredients not listed on the product label, EPA Registration No. 70051-2-829.

The label lists the active ingredient neem oil.  ODA's investigation of the product and laboratory analysis found the presence of malathion, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin, which are not listed on the label. 

The order calls for the product manufacturer to immediately cease all sales, offers of sale, or other distribution in Oregon. In addition, ODA is asking growers who may have purchased the product not to use it.  Use of Triple Action Need Oil Broad Spectrum Fungicide, Insecticide, Miticide could cause cannabis growers to fail pesticide testing requirements.

 Click here for the full advisory.

Ecological Concerns Build Over Rockwool Manufacturing and Health

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For many decades now, Rockwool has been the cornerstone of the clone and hydroponic industry. Providing a sterile media with excellent oxygen retention, even while fully saturated, rockwool has always been a go to for many. But in light of the changing industry dynamics and ecological calamity of corporate pollution, it is now important to look closer at its manufacturing processes and waste stream and make hard decisions about changing our ways.

Environmental Hazards

As growers and farmers, trying to utilize capitalism while keeping the ecology in mind can be a daunting task. It can be a whirlwind of conflicting views and it’s important to understand how the companies we support impact our environment. Right now there is a big storm brewing over West Virginia and it’s highlighting the environmental problems. The Danish insulation company Rockwool announced its plan to construct a factory that is permitted to release a total of 310,291,620 pounds of regulated air pollutants annually in Jefferson County, WV and Loudoun County, VA. (FORBES). And what are some of the pollutants being emitted into the environment?

CO - Carbon Monoxide. Plays a role in ground-level ozone creation.

NOx - Nitrogen Oxide. Reacts with VOCs to form photochemical smog. Significant amount ends up polluting waterways.

PM 2.5 - Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter. Extremely dangerous, causes cancer, heart and lung problems, and premature death.

PM 10 - Inhalable Coarse Particulate Matter. Larger than PM 2.5, not quite as hazarous, but effects still ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer.

SO2 - Sulfur Dioxide. Associated with increased respiratory symptoms and disease, difficulty in breathing, and premature death. Acid rain precursor.

VOCs - Volatile Organic Compounds. Reactive carbon compounds that are precursors of photochemical smog. Rockwool is permitted to emit 6 VOCs that are known or suspected to cause cancer, including Formaldehyde, which is also a neurotoxin that damages memory, learning, behavior, and physical dexterity.

H2SO4 - Sulfuric Acid Mist. "Occupational exposure to strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid is associated with increased risks of laryngeal and lung cancer." - U.S. NIH

Lead - Heavy metal neurotoxin. While Rockwool's airborne lead emissions are small compared to other pollutants, no amount of exposure is safe for children and this must be fully vetted.

CO2e - Carbon Dioxide Equivalent. Not harmful.

HAPs - Hazardous Air Pollutants. WVDEP Fact Sheet/Preliminary Findings

Health Hazards

The main health issue for working with rockwool is that it may pose an inhalation hazard when dry. When it is wet, there is no inhalation hazard. The EPA has this to report: “Most studies in humans have not shown an increase in cancer from exposure to glasswool, glass filaments, rockwool, and slagwool. Animal studies have reported an increase in lung tumors in animals exposed to ceramic fibers by inhalation, while no increase in tumors was reported from exposure to glasswool, rockwool, or slagwool. The EPA has classified refractory ceramic fibers as probable human carcinogens. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined glass filaments, glass wool, rock wool, and slag wool to not be classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).” EPA

HOWEVER, research from the Mesothelioma Justice Network has found other past research has linked several diseases with the inhalation or ingestion of some forms of mineral wool. Based on this research, mineral wool health risks include:

“The effects of the fibers of glass wool and stone wool can be compared to those of asbestos. In the past, we did not know asbestos was very dangerous. The results of the effects of fibers in glass wool and mineral wool are only being seen right now, so we must deal with it carefully,” said Dr. Marjolein Drent, professor of interstitial lung diseases at Maastricht University.

How To Protect Yourself From Mineral Wool

The National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) treats mineral wool like a hazard and still maintains the recommendations that were put into place in 2000 before mineral wool was determined “safe.”

According to NIOSH, workers should protect themselves by wearing:

  • Breathing protection

  • Eye protection

  • Safety gloves

  • Protective clothing

NIOSH also tells workers not to eat, drink, or smoke anywhere near a work site with mineral wool, and to prevent dust from dispersing. Just remember, ROCKWOOL POSES INHALATION HAZARDS WHEN DRY

COMPOSTING USED ROCKWOOL

While the Cannabis Horticultural Association (CHA) has never promoted the use of rockwool for horticultural purposes, it does recognize its widespread use and would like to at least draw awareness to the fact there are methods of composting rockwool. The next section covers 2 methods of composting and 1 trial result provided by a industry representative to provide a framework of understanding how to recycle rockwool via composting. ***The biggest concern we have with rockwool, is that it poses a VERY DANGEROUS INHALATION HAZARD WHEN DRY. It is important for anyone wishing to engage in these practices to understand this. It is of grave concern that farming practices that till the soil with composted rockwool might be exposing themselves to potential inhalation hazards.

1. Generator (Grower) Preparation

• Spent rockwool must be free of all potential contaminants including plastics (no clips, no

twine, no plastic sleeves), trash, etc.

• If spent rockwool has excessive moisture, it should be allowed to dry out for a few days

(dependent on climate conditions and weather). However, excessive dryness is not

desired since the rockwool will eventually turn into a dust or powder which can

become airborne. Ideal condition is "not too wet, not too dry".

• If the grower has a tub grinder or even a wood chipper, the spent rockwool can be

ground up (size reduced) with other green waste and organic materials. This is not

required of the grower but will help in reducing the volume and weight of the material.

2. Green Waste Processor (Composter)

• Spent rockwool can be sized to a 1/4 minus screen using your existing compost

grinders, augers etc.

• Composters should incorporate 10% rockwool to 90% green waste ratio by weight. The

product breaks apart quite easily, and at 10% mixture, the rockwool will not be visible.

• By adding additional granulate (up to 25%), it can also lighten the bulk density of the

compost product depending on the level of compaction. In general, large particles (>1

cm) will ventilate the compost while finer particles (<1 cm) may increase the water

retention capacity.

3. Results from Composting Trials Using Spent Rockwool

• End of life Grodan rockwool, along with vegetation, including roots is an acceptable

feedstock for windrow composting at the 10% rate.

• The compost from the Grodan windrow was indistinguishable from other compost

produced at this facility.

• This feedstock met our quality standards and would fall under the definition of

Agricultural Materials in Title 14(California).

• Process: Windrow composting. Equipment Used: Vermeer TG7000 tub grinder and

Doppstadt 720 trommel screen

b. University of California, Riverside, Department of Environmental Sciences, Contact: Dr.

David Crohn, E-mail: david.crohn@ucr.edu

• The addition of rockwool to green waste during the composting process did not have

any negative impacts.

• In all cases, the addition of rockwool had no significant effect on either germination or

plant growth.

• Used rockwool can be safely mixed with green waste feedstock at low volumes and can

be composted.

• Process: Open windrow. Equipment used: medium sized commercial tub grinder

(Morbark Model 1100) and further screened to 3/4" fines

Consideration

CHA would like for people to comment on this article and share how they feel regarding these practices. Only when we come together as a community, can we decide how to impact large industries disrupting the ecosystems and our health. Based on the current breadth of knowledge regarding rockwool, it is advisable to begin seeking alternative solutions, like coco base hydroponic media and the bark based cloning media or soil based cloning techniques. We will begin to cover these topics more in depth as time goes on, like the sustainability of peat and the binding agents in the other plugs, but for now, hopefully a few eyebrows have been raised as the butterfly continues to flap its wings…

Want to try something other than rockwool? Give these Root Riot or iHort plugs a test drive….

Lead Contamination in Garden Hoses Poses Risk for Cannabis Farmers

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With heavy metal concerns being addressed in Phase 3 testing in California now, it’s important to consider all source points of contamination. And one concern is coming directly from the source that was supposed to provide life, the water. And as it turns out, many traditional garden hoses have become source points for pollution. Lead levels in water runoff from hoses have been found to be as high as 20 ppm!!!

Highlights of Findings ECOCENTER

  • PVC (vinyl) hoses frequently contained elevated lead, bromine, antimony, and phthalates in the flexible hose part. Non-PVC hoses did not contain these contaminants.

    • 29% of the PVC hoses (7 of 24) contained at least 100 ppm and as high as 68,000 ppm lead.

    • Phthalates were found in 75% of PVC hoses tested (18 of 24).

  • Bromine >1000 ppm and antimony >500 ppm were found in 50% of PVC hoses. Recycled electronic waste vinyl was found in a number of PVC hoses, resulting in high levels of bromine (indicating brominated flame retardants), lead, antimony, and tin (indicating organotin stabilizers).

  • BPA and lead were found to leach from the hoses into water.

While commercial growers may not typically use garden hoses, some small farms and backyard gardeners might. It is advisable to find alternative solutions, like high grade rubber hoses from Dramm. Drinking water hoses are also viable but they often develop kinks that make them more difficult to work with in horticultural environments.The rubber hoses are more expensive, but are traditionally more durable, last much longer and are clean! Here’s a link to the least expensive one we’ve found:





Rice Root Aphid – Management and Life Cycle by Moriah LaChapell

Rice Root Aphid (Rhapolosiphum rufiabdominalis) (RRA) is an olive-green insect with a round body.  The wingless stages develop on roots and survive in all types of substrate.  Periodically, winged aphids emerge from the soil and disperse to other plants……

Rice Root Aphid – Management and Life Cycle

Companion Planting for Cannabis

Companion Planting for Cannabis

Companion Planting for Cannabis - Examining the Management of Ecological Habitats for Beneficial Insects

Compost teas proven as effective biocontrol agent to inhibit plant diseases.

Thanks to Compost Tea Lab for sharing some scientific research regarding how and why compost tea works.

Utilization of compost tea for biochemical response assessment
associated with resistance to phytopathogen causing leaf spot
in Melicope ptelefoli

October 2018
Organic Agriculture
Link Here

Malaysia's warm temperatures and wet climate create almost greenhouse like conditions that can be great for growing plants, but also great for culturing plant-disease causing fungi.   Researchers from  Malaysia's University of Technology wanted to  determine what affect compost tea had on the growth of the leaf spot causing Grammothele lineata. The test plant was the Asian herb Melicope ptelefolia which is known for it's edible and medicinal qualities. 

Researchers used two types of teas in the experiment, both were aerated, one of which was supplemented with Molasses.  The researchers then made several concentrations of the tea and dipped leaf leaves into it.  The leaves were then sprayed with a solution that contained the Grammothele spores.  The infected leaves were incubated for a week and then the severity of infection was documented.  The leaves were also tested for the amount of naturally occurring plant defense chemicals present in their tissue.  

What they found was that both teas (with and without molasses) inhibited the growth of the fungal disease by up to 78%.  The highest concentration (40% tea by volume) of molasses brewed tea was the most effective.  The control leaf, which was sprayed with spores only, was completely infected.  Moreover, the leaves that had tea applied to them produced more natural plant defense chemicals (Peroxidase and Polyphenol Oxidase).  The tea boosted the plants own ability to fight off disease.  This is an impressive new discovery in the compost tea realm, as most literature points to compost tea helping reduce infection through competitive exclusion.  This is yet another reason to start using compost tea in your gardens and on your landscape.  Thanks Malaysian scientists for furthering our understanding of why this living fertilizer is such a beneficial substance. 

California Phase III Cannabis Testing - Synopsis

California Phase III Cannabis Testing - Synopsis

If a sample fails terpenoid testing, the batch from which the sample was collected fails terpenoid testing and shall not be released for retail.

Hempot ---> Hemp Fiber Propagation Pots

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The Hempot™ is a transplantable propagation pot made completely out of hemp fiber. It’s materials and stitching are designed to be very sturdy during above ground usage but completely biodegradable upon transplanting. This pot is designed to be planted directly into the ground during transplanting. The unique woven fiber allows the plants roots to grow directly through the sidewalls upon contact. It’s adsorbent fiber will wick and store water, allowing the plants roots to not dry out too quickly upon transplanting, thus reducing shock. The fiber quickly breaks down to build soil organic matter. It has been designed and tested in Humboldt County, CA by iEarth, LLC.

WHY CHOOSE THE HEMPOT™?

Benefits include:

Breakdown of hempot after being buried for 4 weeks -Turning into rich humus

Breakdown of hempot after being buried for 4 weeks -Turning into rich humus

•Eliminates Transplant Shock

•Increases Water Holding Capacity

•Increases Microbial Activity

•Increases Organic Matter in Soil

•Biodegradable - Completely biodegrades within 1-2 months, depending on management practices (ie; adding enzymes or microorganisms to assist with organic matter breakdown)

•Clean Fiber - Our hemp fiber pots are sourced from European hemp that is pesticide and fungicide free. It in the stages of being OMRI certified. You have our assurance that no harmful chemicals will be added to your soil.

Photo of air pruning in hempot

Photo of air pruning in hempot

Air Pruning - They provide excellent air pruning, which promotes lateral root growth. Air-pruning also helps plants that are going to stay in their container long term. Being air-pruned will eliminate root circling, which will allow you to keep the plant in the aeration container longer.

To support ecological farming practices please visit and support: WWW.HEMPOT.WORLD


Hemp is Legalized!!!

Hemp is Legalized!!!

After 80 years of federal prohibition, the hemp plant has finally been “re-legalized” by President Trump signing this historic farm bill. This is a momentous shift for the cannabis industry in general and should help to begin rapidly deconstructing the stigma of cannabis in the eyes of the American public. The history of hemp has a sordid past, wrought with insider conflict of corporate barons, all jockeying to retain positions of their dominant industries. Thanks to the hard work Jack Herer, much of this corporate cronysim was disclosed in his book, The Emperor Wears No Clothes. But today we will not dive into the dark side of hemp prohibition, but instead remind you of hemp’s importance in the founding years of the United States of America and also include worthwhile elements noted about the farm bill.

If you’re interested in hemp, please take a moment and read over these stats:

American Historical Notes - From WWW.JACK.HERER.COM

  1. In 1619, America’s first marijuana law was enacted at Jamestown Colony, Virginia, “ordering” all farmers to “make tryal of “(grow) Indian hempseed. More mandatory (must-grow) hemp cultivation laws were enacted in Massachusetts in 1631, in Connecticut in 1632 and in the Chesapeake Colonies into the mid-1700s. Even in England, the much-sought-after prize of full British citizenship was bestowed by a decree of the crown on foreigners who would grow cannabis, and fines were often levied against those who refused.

  2. Cannabis hemp was legal tender (money) in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800s. Why? To encourage American farmers to grow more. You could pay your taxes with cannabis hemp throughout America for over 200 years.2 You could even be jailed in America for not growing cannabis during several periods of shortage, e.g., in Virginia between 1763 and 1767. (Herndon, G.M., Hemp in Colonial Virginia, 1963; The Chesapeake Colonies, 1954; L.A. Times, August 12, 1981; et al.)

  3. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew cannabis on their plantations. Jefferson,3 while envoy to France, went to great expense, and even considerable risk to himself and his secret agents, to procure particularly good hempseeds smuggled illegally into Turkey from China. The Chinese Mandarins (political rulers) so valued their hemp seed that they made its exportation a capital offense.

  4. The United States Census of 1850 counted 8,327 hemp “plantations”* (minimum 2,000-acre farms) growing cannabis hemp for cloth, canvas and even the cordage used for baling cotton. Most of these plantations were located in the South or in the Border States, primarily because of the cheap slave labor available prior to 1865 for the labor-intensive hemp industry. (U.S. Census, 1850; Allen, James Lane, The Reign of Law, A Tale of the Kentucky Hemp Fields, MacMillan Co., NY, 1900; Roffman, Roger. Ph.D., Marijuana as Medicine, Mendrone Books, WA, 1982.)

  5. Benjamin Franklin started one of America’s first paper mills with cannabis. This allowed America to have a free colonial press without having to beg or justify the need for paper and books from England.

  6. In addition, various marijuana and hashish extracts were the first, second or third most-prescribed medicines in the United States from 1842 until the 1890s. Its medicinal use continued legally through the 1930s for humans and figured even more prominently in American and world veterinary medicines during this time. Cannabis extract medicines were produced by Eli Lilly, Parke-Davis, Tildens, Brothers Smith (Smith Brothers), Squibb and many other American and European companies and apothecaries. During all this time there was not one reported death from cannabis extract medicines, and virtually no abuse or mental disorders reported, except for first-time or novice-users occasionally becoming disoriented or overly introverted. (Mikuriya, Tod, M.D., Marijuana Medical Papers, Medi-Comp Press, CA, 1973; Cohen, Sidney & Stillman, Richard, Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, Plenum Press, NY, 1976.)

    A New America

So as we enter a new era of farming, hemp now stands to be a MAJOR game changer for farmers all across the country. Some worthwhile elements to note about the new farm bill:

Product Spotlight - Baseline

If there is one liquid ingredient worth having around, it’s baseline. Baseline is:

A soluble liquid supplement that feeds beneficial microorganisms; an excellent source of humic and fulvic acids.

It can be used in conjunction with an existing organic or synthetic liquid fertilizer program. It:

•Increases nutrient cycling

•Is an excellent ingredient in compost tea

•Can be used as a stand-alone foliar spray or root drench

•Can be used in drip irrigation systems without clogging emitters

While more expensive than other powdered humics, baseline has many benefits. First off, it is of the highest quality humus and will not create nutrient deficiencies, lockouts or other irregularities sometimes observed with powdered humics. Additionally, its liquid nature makes for rapid tank mixing, unlike other humic powders that get caked onto tank sidewalls and congeal into black clay like dots all over your equipment.

Baseline is basically like plasma for your plants and is a key component to the health of mother plants or any plants that spend many months root bound in containers. Root bound plants can be continuously regenerated by weekly applications of baseline and other microbial products.

Here is a short vimeo video demonstrating the use of baseline in a small nursery in Humboldt County:

Baseline

Cannabis - The Ultimate Modulator

Every once in a while topics outside of horticulture come along that are so important they must be discussed.  I always understood that cannabis modulates (ie: regulates) our bodies through our endo-cannabinoid systems. But I never really understood how extensive it actually was, until now...

In case you’re not aware of it, our bodies have and internal “endo”-Cannabinoid system and cannabis acts as the exo-cannabinoid, “exo” meaning external or outside. So the body has this lock and key system that produces its own endo-cannabinoids and cannabis are like a bunch of keys that are capable of unlocking a lot of locks in our bodies! While this may be an oversimplified version of this system, it’s provides a clear enough analogy to process.

Poster from www.MarysMedicinals.com

Poster from www.MarysMedicinals.com

The most mind opening part of all of this is that cannabis modulates the muscular, skelatal, nervous, digestive, circulatory, limbic and endocrine systems. Basically every system in your body, cannabis can up or down regulate!!!! It causes apoptosis “programmed cell death” of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells in tact. It’s nueroprotetective antioxidant capabilities have been shown to protect the glial cells in the brain from degeneration.  It’s the world’s most incredible plant and is truly here to help heal people.

The implications for health and wellness are profound. We are just at the tip of the iceberg when it comes to understanding how we can combine cannabinoids with other synergistic adaptogens, anti-oxidants, polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins and herbs.  

Science should be diving head in to study how different elements can facilitate modulation when combined with different ratios of cannabinoids. What effects will THC + Iron have vs. CBD + Iron ? What about CBD + Vitamin C + Flavinoids + Calcium? The combinations are almost endless and new holistic modalities for for full spectrum healing might actually be possible with these combinations.

Daily microdosing of cannabinoids shows many promising modes of therapy so look forward into the future for businesses to offer combinations tailored to match specific alignments. At first glance, it appears that the cannabis plant has evolved with the homosapien to modulate our entire biochemistry. Only now, on the doorsteps of worldwide acceptance, can we gleam the vast potential of possibilities the exogenous Cannabinoid system can provide us to literally unlock the pathways for our healing....lock and key baby, lock and key…

By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association