Ecological Concerns Build Over Rockwool Manufacturing and Health

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For many decades now, Rockwool has been the cornerstone of the clone and hydroponic industry. Providing a sterile media with excellent oxygen retention, even while fully saturated, rockwool has always been a go to for many. But in light of the changing industry dynamics and ecological calamity of corporate pollution, it is now important to look closer at its manufacturing processes and waste stream and make hard decisions about changing our ways.

Environmental Hazards

As growers and farmers, trying to utilize capitalism while keeping the ecology in mind can be a daunting task. It can be a whirlwind of conflicting views and it’s important to understand how the companies we support impact our environment. Right now there is a big storm brewing over West Virginia and it’s highlighting the environmental problems. The Danish insulation company Rockwool announced its plan to construct a factory that is permitted to release a total of 310,291,620 pounds of regulated air pollutants annually in Jefferson County, WV and Loudoun County, VA. (FORBES). And what are some of the pollutants being emitted into the environment?

CO - Carbon Monoxide. Plays a role in ground-level ozone creation.

NOx - Nitrogen Oxide. Reacts with VOCs to form photochemical smog. Significant amount ends up polluting waterways.

PM 2.5 - Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter. Extremely dangerous, causes cancer, heart and lung problems, and premature death.

PM 10 - Inhalable Coarse Particulate Matter. Larger than PM 2.5, not quite as hazarous, but effects still ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer.

SO2 - Sulfur Dioxide. Associated with increased respiratory symptoms and disease, difficulty in breathing, and premature death. Acid rain precursor.

VOCs - Volatile Organic Compounds. Reactive carbon compounds that are precursors of photochemical smog. Rockwool is permitted to emit 6 VOCs that are known or suspected to cause cancer, including Formaldehyde, which is also a neurotoxin that damages memory, learning, behavior, and physical dexterity.

H2SO4 - Sulfuric Acid Mist. "Occupational exposure to strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid is associated with increased risks of laryngeal and lung cancer." - U.S. NIH

Lead - Heavy metal neurotoxin. While Rockwool's airborne lead emissions are small compared to other pollutants, no amount of exposure is safe for children and this must be fully vetted.

CO2e - Carbon Dioxide Equivalent. Not harmful.

HAPs - Hazardous Air Pollutants. WVDEP Fact Sheet/Preliminary Findings

Health Hazards

The main health issue for working with rockwool is that it may pose an inhalation hazard when dry. When it is wet, there is no inhalation hazard. The EPA has this to report: “Most studies in humans have not shown an increase in cancer from exposure to glasswool, glass filaments, rockwool, and slagwool. Animal studies have reported an increase in lung tumors in animals exposed to ceramic fibers by inhalation, while no increase in tumors was reported from exposure to glasswool, rockwool, or slagwool. The EPA has classified refractory ceramic fibers as probable human carcinogens. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined glass filaments, glass wool, rock wool, and slag wool to not be classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).” EPA

HOWEVER, research from the Mesothelioma Justice Network has found other past research has linked several diseases with the inhalation or ingestion of some forms of mineral wool. Based on this research, mineral wool health risks include:

“The effects of the fibers of glass wool and stone wool can be compared to those of asbestos. In the past, we did not know asbestos was very dangerous. The results of the effects of fibers in glass wool and mineral wool are only being seen right now, so we must deal with it carefully,” said Dr. Marjolein Drent, professor of interstitial lung diseases at Maastricht University.

How To Protect Yourself From Mineral Wool

The National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) treats mineral wool like a hazard and still maintains the recommendations that were put into place in 2000 before mineral wool was determined “safe.”

According to NIOSH, workers should protect themselves by wearing:

  • Breathing protection

  • Eye protection

  • Safety gloves

  • Protective clothing

NIOSH also tells workers not to eat, drink, or smoke anywhere near a work site with mineral wool, and to prevent dust from dispersing. Just remember, ROCKWOOL POSES INHALATION HAZARDS WHEN DRY

COMPOSTING USED ROCKWOOL

While the Cannabis Horticultural Association (CHA) has never promoted the use of rockwool for horticultural purposes, it does recognize its widespread use and would like to at least draw awareness to the fact there are methods of composting rockwool. The next section covers 2 methods of composting and 1 trial result provided by a industry representative to provide a framework of understanding how to recycle rockwool via composting. ***The biggest concern we have with rockwool, is that it poses a VERY DANGEROUS INHALATION HAZARD WHEN DRY. It is important for anyone wishing to engage in these practices to understand this. It is of grave concern that farming practices that till the soil with composted rockwool might be exposing themselves to potential inhalation hazards.

1. Generator (Grower) Preparation

• Spent rockwool must be free of all potential contaminants including plastics (no clips, no

twine, no plastic sleeves), trash, etc.

• If spent rockwool has excessive moisture, it should be allowed to dry out for a few days

(dependent on climate conditions and weather). However, excessive dryness is not

desired since the rockwool will eventually turn into a dust or powder which can

become airborne. Ideal condition is "not too wet, not too dry".

• If the grower has a tub grinder or even a wood chipper, the spent rockwool can be

ground up (size reduced) with other green waste and organic materials. This is not

required of the grower but will help in reducing the volume and weight of the material.

2. Green Waste Processor (Composter)

• Spent rockwool can be sized to a 1/4 minus screen using your existing compost

grinders, augers etc.

• Composters should incorporate 10% rockwool to 90% green waste ratio by weight. The

product breaks apart quite easily, and at 10% mixture, the rockwool will not be visible.

• By adding additional granulate (up to 25%), it can also lighten the bulk density of the

compost product depending on the level of compaction. In general, large particles (>1

cm) will ventilate the compost while finer particles (<1 cm) may increase the water

retention capacity.

3. Results from Composting Trials Using Spent Rockwool

• End of life Grodan rockwool, along with vegetation, including roots is an acceptable

feedstock for windrow composting at the 10% rate.

• The compost from the Grodan windrow was indistinguishable from other compost

produced at this facility.

• This feedstock met our quality standards and would fall under the definition of

Agricultural Materials in Title 14(California).

• Process: Windrow composting. Equipment Used: Vermeer TG7000 tub grinder and

Doppstadt 720 trommel screen

b. University of California, Riverside, Department of Environmental Sciences, Contact: Dr.

David Crohn, E-mail: david.crohn@ucr.edu

• The addition of rockwool to green waste during the composting process did not have

any negative impacts.

• In all cases, the addition of rockwool had no significant effect on either germination or

plant growth.

• Used rockwool can be safely mixed with green waste feedstock at low volumes and can

be composted.

• Process: Open windrow. Equipment used: medium sized commercial tub grinder

(Morbark Model 1100) and further screened to 3/4" fines

Consideration

CHA would like for people to comment on this article and share how they feel regarding these practices. Only when we come together as a community, can we decide how to impact large industries disrupting the ecosystems and our health. Based on the current breadth of knowledge regarding rockwool, it is advisable to begin seeking alternative solutions, like coco base hydroponic media and the bark based cloning media or soil based cloning techniques. We will begin to cover these topics more in depth as time goes on, like the sustainability of peat and the binding agents in the other plugs, but for now, hopefully a few eyebrows have been raised as the butterfly continues to flap its wings…

Want to try something other than rockwool? Give these Root Riot or iHort plugs a test drive….

Lead Contamination in Garden Hoses Poses Risk for Cannabis Farmers

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With heavy metal concerns being addressed in Phase 3 testing in California now, it’s important to consider all source points of contamination. And one concern is coming directly from the source that was supposed to provide life, the water. And as it turns out, many traditional garden hoses have become source points for pollution. Lead levels in water runoff from hoses have been found to be as high as 20 ppm!!!

Highlights of Findings ECOCENTER

  • PVC (vinyl) hoses frequently contained elevated lead, bromine, antimony, and phthalates in the flexible hose part. Non-PVC hoses did not contain these contaminants.

    • 29% of the PVC hoses (7 of 24) contained at least 100 ppm and as high as 68,000 ppm lead.

    • Phthalates were found in 75% of PVC hoses tested (18 of 24).

  • Bromine >1000 ppm and antimony >500 ppm were found in 50% of PVC hoses. Recycled electronic waste vinyl was found in a number of PVC hoses, resulting in high levels of bromine (indicating brominated flame retardants), lead, antimony, and tin (indicating organotin stabilizers).

  • BPA and lead were found to leach from the hoses into water.

While commercial growers may not typically use garden hoses, some small farms and backyard gardeners might. It is advisable to find alternative solutions, like high grade rubber hoses from Dramm. Drinking water hoses are also viable but they often develop kinks that make them more difficult to work with in horticultural environments.The rubber hoses are more expensive, but are traditionally more durable, last much longer and are clean! Here’s a link to the least expensive one we’ve found:





Rice Root Aphid – Management and Life Cycle by Moriah LaChapell

Rice Root Aphid (Rhapolosiphum rufiabdominalis) (RRA) is an olive-green insect with a round body.  The wingless stages develop on roots and survive in all types of substrate.  Periodically, winged aphids emerge from the soil and disperse to other plants……

Rice Root Aphid – Management and Life Cycle

Companion Planting for Cannabis

Companion Planting for Cannabis

Companion Planting for Cannabis - Examining the Management of Ecological Habitats for Beneficial Insects

Compost teas proven as effective biocontrol agent to inhibit plant diseases.

Thanks to Compost Tea Lab for sharing some scientific research regarding how and why compost tea works.

Utilization of compost tea for biochemical response assessment
associated with resistance to phytopathogen causing leaf spot
in Melicope ptelefoli

October 2018
Organic Agriculture
Link Here

Malaysia's warm temperatures and wet climate create almost greenhouse like conditions that can be great for growing plants, but also great for culturing plant-disease causing fungi.   Researchers from  Malaysia's University of Technology wanted to  determine what affect compost tea had on the growth of the leaf spot causing Grammothele lineata. The test plant was the Asian herb Melicope ptelefolia which is known for it's edible and medicinal qualities. 

Researchers used two types of teas in the experiment, both were aerated, one of which was supplemented with Molasses.  The researchers then made several concentrations of the tea and dipped leaf leaves into it.  The leaves were then sprayed with a solution that contained the Grammothele spores.  The infected leaves were incubated for a week and then the severity of infection was documented.  The leaves were also tested for the amount of naturally occurring plant defense chemicals present in their tissue.  

What they found was that both teas (with and without molasses) inhibited the growth of the fungal disease by up to 78%.  The highest concentration (40% tea by volume) of molasses brewed tea was the most effective.  The control leaf, which was sprayed with spores only, was completely infected.  Moreover, the leaves that had tea applied to them produced more natural plant defense chemicals (Peroxidase and Polyphenol Oxidase).  The tea boosted the plants own ability to fight off disease.  This is an impressive new discovery in the compost tea realm, as most literature points to compost tea helping reduce infection through competitive exclusion.  This is yet another reason to start using compost tea in your gardens and on your landscape.  Thanks Malaysian scientists for furthering our understanding of why this living fertilizer is such a beneficial substance. 

California Phase III Cannabis Testing - Synopsis

California Phase III Cannabis Testing - Synopsis

If a sample fails terpenoid testing, the batch from which the sample was collected fails terpenoid testing and shall not be released for retail.

Hempot ---> Hemp Fiber Propagation Pots

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The Hempot™ is a transplantable propagation pot made completely out of hemp fiber. It’s materials and stitching are designed to be very sturdy during above ground usage but completely biodegradable upon transplanting. This pot is designed to be planted directly into the ground during transplanting. The unique woven fiber allows the plants roots to grow directly through the sidewalls upon contact. It’s adsorbent fiber will wick and store water, allowing the plants roots to not dry out too quickly upon transplanting, thus reducing shock. The fiber quickly breaks down to build soil organic matter. It has been designed and tested in Humboldt County, CA by iEarth, LLC.

WHY CHOOSE THE HEMPOT™?

Benefits include:

Breakdown of hempot after being buried for 4 weeks -Turning into rich humus

Breakdown of hempot after being buried for 4 weeks -Turning into rich humus

•Eliminates Transplant Shock

•Increases Water Holding Capacity

•Increases Microbial Activity

•Increases Organic Matter in Soil

•Biodegradable - Completely biodegrades within 1-2 months, depending on management practices (ie; adding enzymes or microorganisms to assist with organic matter breakdown)

•Clean Fiber - Our hemp fiber pots are sourced from European hemp that is pesticide and fungicide free. It in the stages of being OMRI certified. You have our assurance that no harmful chemicals will be added to your soil.

Photo of air pruning in hempot

Photo of air pruning in hempot

Air Pruning - They provide excellent air pruning, which promotes lateral root growth. Air-pruning also helps plants that are going to stay in their container long term. Being air-pruned will eliminate root circling, which will allow you to keep the plant in the aeration container longer.

To support ecological farming practices please visit and support: WWW.HEMPOT.WORLD


Hemp is Legalized!!!

Hemp is Legalized!!!

After 80 years of federal prohibition, the hemp plant has finally been “re-legalized” by President Trump signing this historic farm bill. This is a momentous shift for the cannabis industry in general and should help to begin rapidly deconstructing the stigma of cannabis in the eyes of the American public. The history of hemp has a sordid past, wrought with insider conflict of corporate barons, all jockeying to retain positions of their dominant industries. Thanks to the hard work Jack Herer, much of this corporate cronysim was disclosed in his book, The Emperor Wears No Clothes. But today we will not dive into the dark side of hemp prohibition, but instead remind you of hemp’s importance in the founding years of the United States of America and also include worthwhile elements noted about the farm bill.

If you’re interested in hemp, please take a moment and read over these stats:

American Historical Notes - From WWW.JACK.HERER.COM

  1. In 1619, America’s first marijuana law was enacted at Jamestown Colony, Virginia, “ordering” all farmers to “make tryal of “(grow) Indian hempseed. More mandatory (must-grow) hemp cultivation laws were enacted in Massachusetts in 1631, in Connecticut in 1632 and in the Chesapeake Colonies into the mid-1700s. Even in England, the much-sought-after prize of full British citizenship was bestowed by a decree of the crown on foreigners who would grow cannabis, and fines were often levied against those who refused.

  2. Cannabis hemp was legal tender (money) in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800s. Why? To encourage American farmers to grow more. You could pay your taxes with cannabis hemp throughout America for over 200 years.2 You could even be jailed in America for not growing cannabis during several periods of shortage, e.g., in Virginia between 1763 and 1767. (Herndon, G.M., Hemp in Colonial Virginia, 1963; The Chesapeake Colonies, 1954; L.A. Times, August 12, 1981; et al.)

  3. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew cannabis on their plantations. Jefferson,3 while envoy to France, went to great expense, and even considerable risk to himself and his secret agents, to procure particularly good hempseeds smuggled illegally into Turkey from China. The Chinese Mandarins (political rulers) so valued their hemp seed that they made its exportation a capital offense.

  4. The United States Census of 1850 counted 8,327 hemp “plantations”* (minimum 2,000-acre farms) growing cannabis hemp for cloth, canvas and even the cordage used for baling cotton. Most of these plantations were located in the South or in the Border States, primarily because of the cheap slave labor available prior to 1865 for the labor-intensive hemp industry. (U.S. Census, 1850; Allen, James Lane, The Reign of Law, A Tale of the Kentucky Hemp Fields, MacMillan Co., NY, 1900; Roffman, Roger. Ph.D., Marijuana as Medicine, Mendrone Books, WA, 1982.)

  5. Benjamin Franklin started one of America’s first paper mills with cannabis. This allowed America to have a free colonial press without having to beg or justify the need for paper and books from England.

  6. In addition, various marijuana and hashish extracts were the first, second or third most-prescribed medicines in the United States from 1842 until the 1890s. Its medicinal use continued legally through the 1930s for humans and figured even more prominently in American and world veterinary medicines during this time. Cannabis extract medicines were produced by Eli Lilly, Parke-Davis, Tildens, Brothers Smith (Smith Brothers), Squibb and many other American and European companies and apothecaries. During all this time there was not one reported death from cannabis extract medicines, and virtually no abuse or mental disorders reported, except for first-time or novice-users occasionally becoming disoriented or overly introverted. (Mikuriya, Tod, M.D., Marijuana Medical Papers, Medi-Comp Press, CA, 1973; Cohen, Sidney & Stillman, Richard, Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, Plenum Press, NY, 1976.)

    A New America

So as we enter a new era of farming, hemp now stands to be a MAJOR game changer for farmers all across the country. Some worthwhile elements to note about the new farm bill:

Product Spotlight - Baseline

If there is one liquid ingredient worth having around, it’s baseline. Baseline is:

A soluble liquid supplement that feeds beneficial microorganisms; an excellent source of humic and fulvic acids.

It can be used in conjunction with an existing organic or synthetic liquid fertilizer program. It:

•Increases nutrient cycling

•Is an excellent ingredient in compost tea

•Can be used as a stand-alone foliar spray or root drench

•Can be used in drip irrigation systems without clogging emitters

While more expensive than other powdered humics, baseline has many benefits. First off, it is of the highest quality humus and will not create nutrient deficiencies, lockouts or other irregularities sometimes observed with powdered humics. Additionally, its liquid nature makes for rapid tank mixing, unlike other humic powders that get caked onto tank sidewalls and congeal into black clay like dots all over your equipment.

Baseline is basically like plasma for your plants and is a key component to the health of mother plants or any plants that spend many months root bound in containers. Root bound plants can be continuously regenerated by weekly applications of baseline and other microbial products.

Here is a short vimeo video demonstrating the use of baseline in a small nursery in Humboldt County:

Baseline

Cannabis - The Ultimate Modulator

Every once in a while topics outside of horticulture come along that are so important they must be discussed.  I always understood that cannabis modulates (ie: regulates) our bodies through our endo-cannabinoid systems. But I never really understood how extensive it actually was, until now...

In case you’re not aware of it, our bodies have and internal “endo”-Cannabinoid system and cannabis acts as the exo-cannabinoid, “exo” meaning external or outside. So the body has this lock and key system that produces its own endo-cannabinoids and cannabis are like a bunch of keys that are capable of unlocking a lot of locks in our bodies! While this may be an oversimplified version of this system, it’s provides a clear enough analogy to process.

Poster from www.MarysMedicinals.com

Poster from www.MarysMedicinals.com

The most mind opening part of all of this is that cannabis modulates the muscular, skelatal, nervous, digestive, circulatory, limbic and endocrine systems. Basically every system in your body, cannabis can up or down regulate!!!! It causes apoptosis “programmed cell death” of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells in tact. It’s nueroprotetective antioxidant capabilities have been shown to protect the glial cells in the brain from degeneration.  It’s the world’s most incredible plant and is truly here to help heal people.

The implications for health and wellness are profound. We are just at the tip of the iceberg when it comes to understanding how we can combine cannabinoids with other synergistic adaptogens, anti-oxidants, polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins and herbs.  

Science should be diving head in to study how different elements can facilitate modulation when combined with different ratios of cannabinoids. What effects will THC + Iron have vs. CBD + Iron ? What about CBD + Vitamin C + Flavinoids + Calcium? The combinations are almost endless and new holistic modalities for for full spectrum healing might actually be possible with these combinations.

Daily microdosing of cannabinoids shows many promising modes of therapy so look forward into the future for businesses to offer combinations tailored to match specific alignments. At first glance, it appears that the cannabis plant has evolved with the homosapien to modulate our entire biochemistry. Only now, on the doorsteps of worldwide acceptance, can we gleam the vast potential of possibilities the exogenous Cannabinoid system can provide us to literally unlock the pathways for our healing....lock and key baby, lock and key…

By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association

Compost Tea Feeding Schedules

Compost tea made with all liquid ingredients

Compost tea made with all liquid ingredients

Compost tea can be an effective strategy for balancing feeding schedules. But in the case of compost tea, more is not necessarily better. In fact, over application can actually cause significant soil imbalances. Many times, the problem of over-application of compost tea becomes compounded when the soil remains over-saturated for too long after the application of compost tea, especially if it is being used at every watering. If the microbes have a big boom cycle but then the soil is water logged, the bust cycle will lead to a much quicker anaerobic state, which can lead to a number of different problems.

There are many instances where compost tea is only applied 1x month to outdoor plants with excellent results. Just because you are seeing excellent results with compost tea, doesn’t mean that adding more will work even better.

Feeding Schedules for Rapid Growth

This compost tea was tank mixed with a few biostimulants just prior to watering.

This compost tea was tank mixed with a few biostimulants just prior to watering.

  1. Liquid Fertilizer

  2. Compost Tea

  3. Water

A very successful regime observed in Humboldt County involves transitioning between liquid fertilizers, compost teas and watering.  So one would use their liquid fertilizer on the first watering, the second watering would be the compost tea and the third watering would be plain water. Depending on site specific conditions, you may want to repeat that schedule or mix and match in different patterns. Some growers dilute the tea and some apply it as full strength. Sometimes they mix it with liquid fertilizers. Some growers pre-amend their soils with organic fertilizers and then simply use compost tea periodically (~1x-2x month) throughout the growing cycles.

Whatever methods you decide to choose, know the backbone to any good compost tea is:

  • Compost/Humus

  • Worm Castings

Cherry Zkittlez grown with compost tea

Cherry Zkittlez grown with compost tea

All the additional ingredients you add will depend on your knowledge of the plants life-cycle and current soil biology. There are ways to brew grow teas, bloom teas, high bacterial teas, high protozoa teas and fungal teas. People use molasses, fish hydrolysate, frass, alfalfa, glacial rock, kelp, straw and many other ingredients, but the backbone always starts with a HIGH QUALITY compost or castings.

That’s the quick lowdown on compost tea feeding schedules, if you feel like you have something to add or would like to share your regimen, please utilize the comments below. Happy Brewing!!!

By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association

Dynamic Accumulators Overview

Dynamic Accumulators planted nearby also function as companion plants, attracting beneficial insects and building soil biology through chop and drop layering and moisture retention through shading on hot summer days.

Dynamic Accumulators planted nearby also function as companion plants, attracting beneficial insects and building soil biology through chop and drop layering and moisture retention through shading on hot summer days.

Dynamic accumulators (DA) are plants that gather certain minerals and nutrients from the soil and store them in higher concentration in their leaf tissues. The leaves of the plants can then be used as compost, mulch or liquid fertilizer.  The truth is that most plants, in a way, are dynamic accumulators in some way because they translocate the soil minerals into their leaves. The difference however, is that certain plants, like horsetail, nettle or buckwheat, for example, tend to pull specific nutrients up in greater amounts.  Horsetail is well known for silica, nettle is well known for iron and buckwheat is known for accumulating phosphorus. Other DA”s like comfrey or yarrow are more all purpose accumulators and pull out more proportional balanced NPK ratios.  DA’s are traditionally thought of as a class of plants associated with nutritive and medicinal herbs. But please don’t confuse DA’s as a specific class of plants, for they can also include other types of flowers and cover crops as well.

 

Dynamic accumulators (DA) can really be viewed as nutrient miners. They use their root structure to mine nutrients. They can have deep tap roots or an extensive underground network of rhizomes which translocate those minerals into their leaves.  Sometimes they are used to try to repair soil, whereby a DA that has a deep tap root can pull up nutrients, and when the leaves are dropped and mulched over the surface, they breakdown and become bioavailable near the soil surface.

 

Comfrey - Plant near compost bins or greenhouses for easy mulching and/or compost building.

Comfrey - Plant near compost bins or greenhouses for easy mulching and/or compost building.

Typically though, people are using DA’s to mine nutrients from nearby soil and then apply those nutrients to another area of a farm or garden. So imagine you have a farm and there’s edges of fields or gardens just sitting there covered with grass. So one would plant a row or swath of, let’s say, comfrey in that area.  Then the comfrey would mine the nutrients from that unused area and then the leaves could be mulched into the pots, beds or fields or amended into the compost pile. The comfrey could also be turned into liquid fertilizers or foliar sprays through the extraction processes of fermentation or sun teas.

 

Chamomile Sun Teas have been tested to be high in Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S. This chamomile fermented plant extract was drip fed to these plants.

Chamomile Sun Teas have been tested to be high in Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S. This chamomile fermented plant extract was drip fed to these plants.

One of the contended variables of DA’s is the technical science behind quantifying how much nutrients are actually stored. If nettle is good at accumulating iron, but there is no iron in your soil, hypothetically, then it won’t really store that element because it wasn’t there in the first place! Also, it is apparently unknown to science precisely how long it takes for nutrients to become bioavailable.  Once the leaves store the nutrients, and the leaves return to the soil, there is little science to quantify how quickly or how much is returned into bioavailable nutrients. Science tends to overanalyze everything and want’s answers before proceeding. So while the scientific community is trying to find the answers to DA’s, the biodynamic and regenerative cannabis communities are embracing DA’s and seeing very positive empirical results. The complexities of DA’s are just beginning to be understood. There are a number of charts online to view which DA’s accumulate specific elements. Even if some of the research is anecdotal, it can still provide a general understanding for those wishing to engage in this practice.

By: Russell Pace – President of the Cannabis Horticultural Association